Customs Considerations When Exporting to Ethiopia
Manufacturers looking to export their products abroad need to consider various factors when evaluating export markets. One of those factors is the customs clearance infrastructure and processes within a given country. This article presents an overview of the time and cost it takes for a local partner to clear imported products through customs in Ethiopia. This overview, along with a regional comparison, should help you better qualify Ethiopia as an export market for your products.
Ethiopia is located within the Sub-Saharan Africa region. It has a population of roughly 108 million people as of 2018. 20% of the population lives in urban areas. The World Bank categorizes it as a low income country with a GDP per capita (PPP) of USD$2100 per person.
The "World Bank's Doing Business project" publishes an evaluation of countries based on their efficiency of cross border trade. When assessing import efficiency within a country it primarily reviews four factors:
1. The time for border compliance (imports): Compliance time associated with the country's customs regulations, inspections and handling that takes place at its port or border. Assumes a US$50,000 imported shipment of auto parts weighing 15 tons for calculation purposes.
2. The cost of border compliance (imports): Compliance cost associated with the country's customs regulations, inspections and handling that takes place at its port or border. Assumes a US$50,000 imported shipment of auto parts weighing 15 tons for calculation purposes.
3. The time for document compliance (imports): The time for obtaining documents, preparing documents, processing documents, presenting documents and submitting documents. Assumes a US$50,000 imported shipment of auto parts weighing 15 tons for calculation purposes.
4. The cost of document compliance (imports): The cost for obtaining documents, preparing documents, processing documents, presenting documents and submitting documents. Assumes a US$50,000 imported shipment of auto parts weighing 15 tons for calculation purposes.
When evaluating border compliance time and cost amongst major regional economies, Ethiopia ranks 13th regionally in terms of border compliance time and 10th regionally in terms of border compliance cost. A US$50,000 imported shipment of auto parts would take 166 hours to clear border customs and cost roughly US$738.
|Country||Border Compliance Time (Hours)||Border Compliance Cost (USD)|
|Republic of Congo||397||$1581|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||588||$3039|
When evaluating document compliance time and cost amongst major regional economies, Ethiopia ranks 16th regionally in terms of document compliance time and 16th regionally in terms of document compliance cost. A US$50,000 imported shipment of auto parts would take 194 hours in Ethiopia to have documents prepared & cleared and would cost roughly US$750.
|Country||Document Compliance Time (Hours)||Document Compliance Cost (USD)|
|Republic of Congo||208||$310|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||216||$875|
Detail for Border Compliance Time and Cost
Border compliance time and cost are calculated as a function of three driving factors: the time/cost related to working with customs authorities, the time/cost related to working with other agencies and finally border handling time/cost. The border compliance time and cost for Ethiopia are primarily driven by working with custom agencies.
Addis Ababa Overview:
|Detail Type||Time (Hours)||Cost (USD)|
|Working with Custom Authorities||72||$120|
|Working with Other Agencies||94||$618|
Detail of Document Compliance Time and Cost
Document compliance time and cost is a function of the various documents required by the country when importing goods. For Addis Ababa, the documents required when importing goods from abroad include Commercial invoice, Packing list, Certificate of origin, Bill of lading, Insurance certificate, Import license, Import declaration, Transit document, Bank permit, Agency Agreement, SOLAS certificate, Certificate of inspection.
Another factor that influences import trade efficiency is transportation costs. For shipments bound to Addis Ababa, the port where goods would most likely land would be Galafi-Awshaf border crossing. When calculating transportation cost for the US$50,000 auto parts shipment, the World Bank calculates that the shipment that would land at Galafi-Awshaf border crossing would need to be transported 698 km with an average travel time of 48 hours. This brings the delivery transportation cost for the shipment to roughly US$529.
Greater use of technology within the customs clearance process helps improve efficiency and lower time and cost associated with customs clearance. Today many countries use digital systems to streamline the customs clearance process. Many of these customs systems are known as EDI or Electronic Data Interchange systems. More recently however, there has been a push to develop even more integrated customs clearance systems known as SW or single window systems. These systems provide greater integration within a given country and between multiple countries when managing customs clearance.
Ethiopia does not have an EDI system. It also has no SW system. .